The Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve has captured the worldwide attention of biologists, conservationists, and ecologists and has been the setting for extensive investigation over the past 30 years. Roughly 40,000 ecotourists visit the Cloud Forest each year, and it is often considered the archetypal high-altitude rain forest. This volume brings together some of the most prominent researchers of the region to provide a broad introduction to the biology of the Monteverde, and cloud forests in general. Collecting and synthesizing vital information about the ecosystem and its biota, the book also examines the positive and negative effects of human activity on both the forest and the surrounding communities. Ecologists, tropical biologists, and natural historians will find this volume an indispensable resource, as will all those who are fascinated by the magnificent wonders of the tropical forests.
Behavioral Ecology and Conservation Biology
In just the last few years, behavioral ecologists have begun to address issues in conservation biology. This volume is the first attempt to link these disciplines formally. Here leading researchers explore current topics in conservation biology and discuss how behavioral ecology can contribute to a greater understanding of conservation problems and conservation intervention programs. In each chapter, the authors identify a conservation issue, review the ways it has been addressed, review behavioral ecological data related to it, including their own, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the behavioral ecological approach, and put forward specific conservation recommendations. The chapters juxtapose different studies on a wide variety of taxonomic groups. A number of common themes emerge, including the ways in which animal mating systems affect population persistence, the roles of dispersal and inbreeding avoidance for topics such as reserve design and effective population size, the key role of humans in conservation issues, and the importance of baseline data for conservation monitoring and modeling attempts. Each chapter sheds new light on conservation problems, generates innovative avenues of interdisciplinary research, and shows how conservation-minded behavioral ecologists can apply their expertise to some of the most important questions we face today.
A Primer of Conservation Behavior
This Primer nurtures the development of biologists interested in using animal behavior concepts and tools to solve conservation and wildlife management problems. This is the first practical guide fostering integration and showing how to apply these methodologies to issues that would benefit from an animal behavior perspective.
Front Tracking for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws
This is the second edition of a well-received book providing the fundamentals of the theory hyperbolic conservation laws. Several chapters have been rewritten, new material has been added, in particular, a chapter on space dependent flux functions and the detailed solution of the Riemann problem for the Euler equations. Hyperbolic conservation laws are central in the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations and in science and technology. The reader is given a self-contained presentation using front tracking, which is also a numerical method. The multidimensional scalar case and the case of systems on the line are treated in detail. A chapter on finite differences is included. From the reviews of the first edition: "It is already one of the few best digests on this topic. The present book is an excellent compromise between theory and practice. Students will appreciate the lively and accurate style." D. Serre, MathSciNet "I have read the book with great pleasure, and I can recommend it to experts as well as students. It can also be used for reliable and very exciting basis for a one-semester graduate course." S. Noelle, Book review, German Math. Soc. "Making it an ideal first book for the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations...an excellent reference for a graduate course on nonlinear conservation laws." M. Laforest, Comp. Phys. Comm.
Distribution Solutions of Nonlinear Systems of Conservation Laws
The local structure of solutions of initial value problems for nonlinear systems of conservation laws is considered. Given large initial data, there exist systems with reasonable structural properties for which standard entropy weak solutions cannot be continued after finite time, but for which weaker solutions, valued as measures at a given time, exist. At any given time, the singularities thus arising admit representation as weak limits of suitable approximate solutions in the space of measures with respect to the space variable. Two distinct classes of singularities have emerged in this context, known as delta-shocks and singular shocks. Notwithstanding the similar form of the singularities, the analysis of delta-shocks is very different from that of singular shocks, as are the systems for which they occur. Roughly speaking, the difference is that for delta-shocks, the density approximations majorize the flux approximations, whereas for singular shocks, the flux approximations blow up faster. As against that admissible singular shocks have viscous structure.
Biodiversity and Conservation in Europe
This book brings together a selection of original studies that address biodiversity and conservation in Europe. The contributions are drawn from a wide range of countries and discuss diverse organism and habitat types. They collectively provide a snap-shot of the sorts of studies and actions being taken in Europe to address issues in biodiversity and conservation – topical examples that make the volume especially valuable for use in conservation biology courses.
Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws and the Mathematical Theory of Shock Waves
This book deals with the mathematical side of the theory of shock waves. The author presents what is known about the existence and uniqueness of generalized solutions of the initial value problem subject to the entropy conditions. The subtle dissipation introduced by the entropy condition is investigated and the slow decay in signal strength it causes is shown.
Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology
Monitoring has become fashionable. Business now talks about monitoring its activities, efficiency, costs and profits. The National Health Service is monitoring general practices and hospitals; it is keen to have more information about efficiency and the duration of stay of patients in different hospitals undergoing different types of treatment. These activities are usually carried out in relation to specific objectives with the aim of making activities more cost effective and competitive. Does the same apply in biology, ecology and nature conservation? Or, are we still enjoying conducting field surveys for the fun of it, at best with rather vague objectives and saying to our colleagues that we do our work because we need to know what is there? This book is an opportunity to consider some of the reasons why monitoring is important, how it differs from survey, how it may be able to answer specific questions and help with site management or problem solving. It will explore some of the taxa that are suitable for recording and how you may actually set about doing it. It is not intended as a catalogue of techniques but we will in each chapter give you sources of material so that with the minimum of effort you will be able to proceed with an efficient, relevant and not too time consuming monitoring programme. Some of the points that you need to consider before starting are also set down in the synthesis at the end of the book.
Numerical Methods for Conservation Laws
These notes were developed for a graduate-level course on the theory and numerical solution of nonlinear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Part I deals with the basic mathematical theory of the equations: the notion of weak solutions, entropy conditions, and a detailed description of the wave structure of solutions to the Riemann problem. The emphasis is on tools and techniques that are indispensable in developing good numerical methods for discontinuous solutions. Part II is devoted to the development of high resolution shock-capturing methods, including the theory of total variation diminishing (TVD) methods and the use of limiter functions. The book is intended for a wide audience, and will be of use both to numerical analysts and to computational researchers in a variety of applications.
Quantitative Methods for Conservation Biology
Quantitative methods are needed in conservation biology more than ever as an increasing number of threatened species find their way onto international and national “red lists. ” Objective evaluation of population decline and extinction probability are required for sound decision making. Yet, as our colleague Selina Heppell points out, population viability analysis and other forms of formal risk assessment are underused in policy formation because of data uncertainty and a lack of standardized methodologies and unambiguous criteria (i. e. , “rules of thumb”). Models used in conservation biology range from those that are purely heuristic to some that are highly predictive. Model selection should be dependent on the questions being asked and the data that are available. We need to develop a toolbox of quantitative methods that can help scientists and managers with a wide range of systems and that are subject to varying levels of data uncertainty and environmental variability. The methods outlined in the following chapters represent many of the tools needed to fill that toolbox. When used in conjunction with adaptive management, they should provide information for improved monitoring, risk assessment, and evaluation of management alternatives. The first two chapters describe the application of methods for detecting trends and extinctions from sighting data. Presence/absence data are used in general linear and additive models in Chapters 3 and 4 to predict the extinction proneness of birds and to build habitat models for plants.