Cultural Norms and National Security

Titre : Cultural Norms and National Security
Auteur : Peter J. Katzenstein
Éditeur : Cornell University Press
ISBN-13 : 0801483328
Libération : 1998

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Nonviolent state behavior in Japan, this book argues, results from the distinctive breadth with which the Japanese define security policy, making it inseparable from the quest for social stability through economic growth. While much of the literature on contemporary Japan has resisted emphasis on cultural uniqueness, Peter J. Katzenstein seeks to explain particular aspects of Japan's security policy in terms of legal and social norms that are collective, institutionalized, and sometimes the source of intense political conflict and change. Culture, thus specified, is amenable to empirical analysis, suggesting comparisons across policy domains and with other countries. Katzenstein focuses on the traditional core agencies of law enforcement and national defense. The police and the military in postwar Japan are, he finds, reluctant to deploy physical violence to enforce state security. Police agents rarely use repression against domestic opponents of the state, and the Japanese public continues to support, by large majorities, constitutional limits on overseas deployment of the military. Katzenstein traces the relationship between the United States and Japan since 1945 and then compares Japan with postwar Germany. He concludes by suggesting that while we may think of Japan's security policy as highly unusual, it is the definition of security used in the United States that is, in international terms, exceptional.

The Culture of National Security

Titre : The Culture of National Security
Auteur : Peter J. Katzenstein
Éditeur : Columbia University Press
ISBN-13 : 0231104693
Libération : 1996-01

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Contributors ask whether it is more useful to conceive of the world as arrayed in regional, cultural, institutional complexes or organized along the conventional dimensions of power, alliance, and geography. They argue that perspectives that neglect the roles of culture and identity are no longer adequate to explain the complexities of a world undergoing rapid change.

Cultural Norms and National Security

Titre : Cultural Norms and National Security
Auteur : Peter J. Katzenstein
Éditeur :
ISBN-13 : UOM:39015038018258
Libération : 1996

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Nonviolent state behavior in Japan, this book argues, results from the distinctive breadth with which the Japanese define security policy, making it inseparable from the quest for social stability through economic growth. While much of the literature on contemporary Japan has resisted emphasis on cultural uniqueness, Peter J. Katzenstein seeks to explain particular aspects of Japan's security policy in terms of legal and social norms that are collective, institutionalized, and sometimes the source of intense political conflict and change. Culture, thus specified, is amenable to empirical analysis, suggesting comparisons across policy domains and with other countries. Katzenstein focuses on the traditional core agencies of law enforcement and national defense. The police and the military in postwar Japan are, he finds, reluctant to deploy physical violence to enforce state security. Police agents rarely use repression against domestic opponents of the state, and the Japanese public continues to support, by large majorities, constitutional limits on overseas deployment of the military. Katzenstein traces the relationship between the United States and Japan since 1945 and then compares Japan with postwar Germany. He concludes by suggesting that while we may think of Japan's security policy as highly unusual, it is the definition of security used in the United States that is, in international terms, exceptional.

Cultures of Antimilitarism

Titre : Cultures of Antimilitarism
Auteur : Thomas U. Berger
Éditeur : Johns Hopkins University Press
ISBN-13 : 0801872383
Libération : 2003-04-02

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In Cultures of Antimilitarism: National Security in Germany and Japan Thomas Berger analyzes the complex domestic and international political forces that brought about this unforeseen transformation.

In the Name of National Security

Titre : In the Name of National Security
Auteur : Robert J. Corber
Éditeur : Duke University Press
ISBN-13 : 0822313863
Libération : 1993-10-20

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In the Name of National Security exposes the ways in which the films of Alfred Hitchcock, in conjunction with liberal intellectuals and political figures of the 1950s, fostered homophobia so as to politicize issues of gender in the United States. As Corber shows, throughout the 1950s a cast of mind known as the Cold War consensus prevailed in the United States. Promoted by Cold War liberals--that is, liberals who wanted to perserve the legacies of the New Deal but also wished to separate liberalism from a Communist-dominated cultural politics--this consensus was grounded in the perceived threat that Communists, lesbians, and homosexuals posed to national security. Through an analysis of the films of Alfred Hitchcock, combined with new research on the historical context in which these films were produced, Corber shows how Cold War liberals tried to contain the increasing heterogeneity of American society by linking questions of gender and sexual identity directly to issues of national security, a strategic move that the films of Hitchcock both legitimated and at times undermined. Drawing on psychoanalytic and Marxist theory, Corber looks at such films as Rear Window, Strangers on a Train, and Psycho to show how Hitchcock manipulated viewers' attachments and identifications to foster and reinforce the relationship between homophobia and national security issues. A revisionary account of Hitchcock's major works, In the Name of National Security is also of great interest for what it reveals about the construction of political "reality" in American history.

How the Gloves Came Off

Titre : How the Gloves Came Off
Auteur : Elizabeth Grimm Arsenault
Éditeur : Columbia University Press
ISBN-13 : 9780231543255
Libération : 2017-03-07

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The treatment of detainees at Abu Ghraib prison, Guantánamo Bay, and far-flung CIA “black sites” after the attacks of 9/11 included cruelty that defied legal and normative prohibitions in U.S. and international law. The antitorture stance of the United States was brushed aside in a manner contrary to the U.S. historical experience. Since then, the debate over the guarantee of American civil liberties and due process for POWs and detainees has grown muddled, threatening the norms that bolster modern democracies. How the Gloves Came Off considers the legal and political arguments that led to this standoff between civility and chaos, with significant consequences for America’s strategic and security interests abroad. Unpacking the rhetoric surrounding the push for unitary executive action in wartime, How the Gloves Came Off traces the unmaking of the consensus against torture held by the American military, executive-branch lawyers, and the public. It implicates U.S. military commanders, high-level government administrators, lawyers, and policy makers from both parties, exposing the ease with which powerful actors manipulated ambiguities in the norms and laws to strip detainees of their humanity. By targeting the language and logic that made torture thinkable, this book shows how future decision makers can craft an effective counternarrative and set a new course for U.S. policy toward POWs and detainees. Whether leaders use their influence to reinforce a prohibition of cruelty to prisoners or continue to undermine longstanding international law will determine whether the United States retains a core component of its founding identity.

The Culture of Military Innovation

Titre : The Culture of Military Innovation
Auteur : Dima Adamsky
Éditeur : Stanford University Press
ISBN-13 : 9780804773805
Libération : 2010-01-27

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This book studies the impact of cultural factors on the course of military innovations. One would expect that countries accustomed to similar technologies would undergo analogous changes in their perception of and approach to warfare. However, the intellectual history of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) in Russia, the US, and Israel indicates the opposite. The US developed technology and weaponry for about a decade without reconceptualizing the existing paradigm about the nature of warfare. Soviet 'new theory of victory' represented a conceptualization which chronologically preceded technological procurement. Israel was the first to utilize the weaponry on the battlefield, but was the last to develop a conceptual framework that acknowledged its revolutionary implications. Utilizing primary sources that had previously been completely inaccessible, and borrowing methods of analysis from political science, history, anthropology, and cognitive psychology, this book suggests a cultural explanation for this puzzling transformation in warfare. The Culture of Military Innovation offers a systematic, thorough, and unique analytical approach that may well be applicable in other perplexing strategic situations. Though framed in the context of specific historical experience, the insights of this book reveal important implications related to conventional, subconventional, and nonconventional security issues. It is therefore an ideal reference work for practitioners, scholars, teachers, and students of security studies.

When Norms Collide

Titre : When Norms Collide
Auteur : Karisa Cloward
Éditeur : Oxford University Press
ISBN-13 : 9780190274948
Libération : 2016-02-02

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Many transnational campaigns, and particularly the transnational campaign on violence against women, promote international norms that target the behavior of local nonstate actors. But these international norms are often at odds with local practices. What happens when the international and local norms collide? When does transnational activism lead individuals and communities to abandon local norms and embrace international ones? In When Norms Collide, Karisa Cloward presents a path-breaking theoretical framework for understanding the processes by which individuals negotiate competing demands placed on them by international and local norms. Drawing on extensive fieldwork with local communities in Kenya, she applies the theory to the practices of female genital mutilation and early marriage. Cloward argues that, when faced with international normative messages, individuals can decide to change their attitudes, their behavior, and the public image they present to international and local audiences. Moreover, the impact of transnational activism on individuals substantially depends on the salience of the international and local norms to their respective proponents, as well as on community-level factors.

Security Studies

Titre : Security Studies
Auteur : Christopher W. Hughes
Éditeur : Routledge
ISBN-13 : 9781134341634
Libération : 2014-03-17

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This reader brings together key contributions from many of the leading scholars in the field, offering students an informed overview of the most significant work in security studies. The editors chart the development of the key theoretical and empirical debates in security studies in the Cold War and post-Cold War periods, introducing the ideas of the most influential ‘past masters’ and contemporary thinkers on security in the UK, US and elsewhere. The book is divided into five areas: What is Security? Security Paradigms Security Dimensions and Issues Security Frameworks and Actors The Future of Security. In order to guide students through the issues, the book has a substantial critical introduction exploring the development of security studies, as well as introductory essays that provide an overview of each section, highlighting clearly how the readings fit together. Suggestions for further reading and key questions for discussion are also included. Security Studies is an invaluable resource for all students of security studies and international relations.

Small States in World Markets

Titre : Small States in World Markets
Auteur : Peter J. Katzenstein
Éditeur : Cornell University Press
ISBN-13 : 0801493269
Libération : 1985-06-28

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By the early 1980s the average American had a lower standard of living than the average Norwegian or Dane. Standards of living in the Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Switzerland, and Austria also rivaled those in the United States. How have seven small democracies achieved economic success and what can they teach America? In Small States in World Markets, Peter Katzenstein examines the successes of these economically vulnerable nations of Western Europe, showing that they have managed to stay economically competitive while at the same time preserving their political institutions. Too dependent on world trade to impose protection, and lacking the resources to transform their domestic industries, they have found a third solution. Their rapid and flexible response to market opportunity stems from what Katzenstein calls "democratic corporatism," a mixture of ideological consensus, centralized politics, and complex bargains among politicians, merest groups, and bureaucrats. Democratic corporatism is the solution these nations have developed in response to the economic crises of the 1930s and 1940s, the liberal international economy established after World War II, and the volatile markets of more recent years. Katzenstein maintains that democratic corporatism is an effective way of coping with a rapidly changing world, a more effective way than the United States and several other large industrial countries have yet managed to discover.